This side view of a fly shows the figure-eight motion insects use to fly. Wing speed remains fairly constant in the middle of the strokes, but at the high and low points, the wings stop and rotate in place – different than airplanes and other large flying vehicles. Image credit: Zbikowski et al. Midge swarms show mechanical properties, behave as a viscoelastic material The fly’s advanced flying techniques provide a prototype for scientists designing micro air vehicles. Scientists Zbikowski et al. have found a model to describe certain flying dynamics that will help where observation becomes practically difficult. Photo credit: FreeDigitalPhotos.net, http://www.freedigitalphotos.net When it comes to flying, the fly reigns supreme. This two-winged insect’s sophisticated flying behavior enables it to make sharp turns, aim at targets and hover – traits which make the insect an ideal prototype for tiny micro air vehicles (MAVs). However, the same flying finesse also presents challenges for scientists trying to investigate, observe and understand these complex creatures in their natural environments. Now, scientists from the U.K. demonstrate that mathematical modeling may provide adequate complementary information for advances in MAV technology. Airplane technology has been evolving for more than 100 years, with much attention to size increase: In 2005, for example, the Airbus380 was unveiled. The plane can carry up to 800 people and is as long as a football field.On the other end of the spectrum, MAVs – which scale down to around 150 mm, about 10 times larger than a real fly – have only emerged in science labs since the late ‘90s. Because the aerodynamics of airplanes don’t work for such minute flying machines, engineers and biologists have looked to nature to mimic her millions-year-old evolution of insect aerodynamics.Up to now, scientists have primarily learned about insects’ flying behavior empirically – for example, by tethering flies inside a virtual reality cage and manipulating the flies’ environment to observe flight patterns and motions. “[Tethering means that] insect behavior may differ from free flight,” wrote Rafal Zbikowski, Salman Ansari and Kevin Knowles in a recent issue of the new journal Bioinspiration and Biomimetics. “Further progress, especially in the context of MAVs, can be achieved by the complementary information derived from appropriate mathematical modeling. The focus here is on a means of computing the data not easily available from experiments and also on making mathematical predictions to suggest new experiments.” Explore further Citation: Flies provide aerodynamic model for tiny flying vehicles (2006, August 28) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2006-08-flies-aerodynamic-tiny-vehicles.html In their paper, Zbikowski, Ansari and Knowles presented a sample model of the fly in hover mode with aerodynamic modeling, for the first time accounting for the non-linearity due to the fly’s complex wing kinematics. The team found good agreement when comparing their model with data from experiments by Michael Dickinson, known for his fabrication of Robofly – a motor-powered, stainless steel robot controlled by a computer.“Since the aerodynamic force and moment production in insects is periodic, it is relevant to consider special mathematical tools,” the team concluded, noting that periodicity only describes part of insect flight. “Indeed, if all solutions of the equations of motion were periodic, straight line flight (observed clearly in hoverflies) would not be possible. On the other hand, butterflies often fly ‘erratically’ which may mean that they employ quasi-periodic (or even chaotic) solutions in order to avoid capture by predators.”Scientists foresee a wide range of applications for tiny flying robots based on insects: for starters, MAVs could have uses in search and rescue missions (such as in burning buildings), spying, sensing dangerous chemicals and space exploration. Since MAVs should be inexpensive to manufacture after the technology is developed, they could conceivably be exploited for many as-yet-unthought-of everyday applications, as well.Citation: Zbikowski, Rafal, Ansari, Salman, and Knowles, Kevin. “On mathematical modeling of insect flight dynamics in the context of micro air vehicles.” Bioinspiration and Biomimetics. 2006. 1 R26-R37.By Lisa Zyga, Copyright 2006 PhysOrg.com, Photo credit: FreeDigitalPhotos.net One type of modeling the scientists demonstrate concerns the “six degrees of freedom” motion, which refers to the ability to move forward, backward, left, right, up and down, as well as rotate in directions called yaw, pitch and roll. The fly, like a plane, can move and rotate in each of these directions, but it flaps its single set of wings more akin to oars on a rowboat than airplane wings. Flapping nearly 200 times per second, its wings move in a figure-eight motion perpendicular to its body. “The motion of a flapping wing differs from conventional aeroplane rotorcraft wings in that it starts from rest, accelerates to some roughly constant speed, and then decelerates to rest again,” the scientists explained.The fly achieves its flight and keen maneuverability due to complex airflow created by the highly angled wings when they stop at the high and low points (halfstrokes) of the figure-eight path (see figure). At these points, the wing rotates rapidly, creating peaks of lift force due to a special vortex system. Further complexity arises because the wings continually pass back and forth through their own wake, capturing energy from previous strokes and complicating scientists’ traditional aerodynamic theories. This document is subject to copyright. 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Seagate Introduces Flexible External Hard Drives Seagate’s GoFlex Satellite HD lets you store up to 300 movies and stream directly 3 iPads at the same time. You can also automatically sync media and documents from a PC or Mac computer. © 2010 PhysOrg.com (PhysOrg.com) — Seagate’s GoFlex Satellite is the first portable hard drive, with integrated Wi-Fi and battery pack, that lets you stream 500 GB directly to any mobile or Wi-Fi equipped device without using any cables. Seagate’s GoFlex Satellite is available immediately for preorders from Seagate.com and will be available later this summer. No specific date has been released. Seagate’s 500 GB drive isn’t much physically larger than some of their other portable storage devices however the lithium-ion battery provides portable power that last up to 5 hours of continues video streaming and 25 hours of standby. Seagate’s GoFlex Satellite is able to create its own wireless hotspot to stream media to any device equipped with a Wi-Fi connection. The device is capable of making three separate connections simultaneously, and can stream an HD movie over each one of those connections up to 150 feet away with no picture freeze ups.Seagate has also developed an app for the new iPad and iPhone specifically designed for the drive. The app can buffer an entire movie in less than seven minutes, minimizing the time that the drive is actually in use and conserving the battery. Video can also be streamed to any Wi-Fi enabled device using a web browser.Video below is a review of Seagate’s GoFlex Satellite HD performed by Engadget. Citation: Seagate portable storage goes wireless (w/ video) (2011, May 16) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-05-seagate-portable-storage-wireless-video.html More information: Seagate Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
(PhysOrg.com) — TeraDiode, a spinout company from MIT Lincoln Lab and located nearby in Littleton, MA, has unveiled, a new powerful direct-diode laser capable of cutting all the way through steel up to half an inch thick at various speeds. The laser is based on technology developed by company co-founders Dr. Bien Chann and Dr. Robin Huang while still at MIT. Citation: MIT Lincoln Lab spinout unveils new more powerful direct-diode laser (2011, July 8) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-07-mit-spinout-unveils-powerful-direct-diode.html TeraDiode Laser Cutting and Welding demo. Company CEO David Sossen says that the new laser breaks through the limiting factors that have held back the use of truly powerful lasers in all but manufacturing pursuits; namely, the inefficiencies and huge power appetites normally associated with powerful lasers, and can “output between several hundred and several thousand watts, and in principle up to 100 kilowatts,” all in a package that is smaller than other laser systems currently available.The company makes clear it sees its new technology as not just a new tool for manufacturing, but as a future weapon that could be placed aboard a tank or ship in perhaps as few as five years. In the meantime, the company says it will be focusing on testing the new technology to see if it might be used in missile defense, such as connecting it to the back of a fighter plane to stymie the technology in heat-seeking weapons currently used in anti-aircraft missiles, or better yet, to simply destroy them. The new laser system is based on semiconductor technology, which means it uses electricity, rather than chemicals, and employs an optical system that directs multiple individual beams into one single stronger one, and, according to the company website, the laser has “revolutionary TeraDrive technology” that has “coupled 1000 watts into a 200 um, 0.18 NA fiber.” Which means, it is assumed, that they believe they have succeeded in creating the most powerful direct-diode laser ever; one that is also brighter and more focused than those that came before it.The bottom line here appears to be that the company has put together laser technology that when deployed, will be smaller than others that have similar strength, and will be both more compact, and more efficient; making it perhaps, at last, suitable for creating laser guns like we’ve been seeing in science-fiction movies for years. Explore further World’s most powerful diode pumped solid state laser This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. More information: teradiode.com/ © 2010 PhysOrg.com
More information: Error-tradeoff and error-disturbance relations for incompatible quantum measurements, PNAS April 23, 2013 vol. 110 no. 17 6742-6747, doi:10.1073/pnas.1219331110 Related: 1Universally valid reformulation of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle on noise and disturbance in measurement, Physical Review A 67, 042105 (2003), doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.67.042105 Branciard acknowledges that there has been, and still is, confusion between those two versions of the uncertainty principle – that is, the joint measurement aspect and the statistical indeterminacy for exclusive measurements – and many physicists misunderstood the standard uncertainty relations as implying limits on the joint measurability of incompatible observables. “In fact,” he points out, “it was widely believed that the standard uncertainty relation was also valid for approximate joint measurements, if one simply replaces the uncertainties with the errors for the position and momentum. However, this relation is in fact in general not valid.”Surprisingly little work has been done on the joint measurement aspect of the uncertainty principle, and it has been quantified only in the last decade when Ozawa1 derived the first universally valid trade-off relations between errors and disturbance – that is, valid for all approximation strategies for the joint measurement error-tradeoff relations for joint measurements. “However,” says Branciard, “these relations were not tight. My paper presents new, stronger relations that are. In order to quantify the uncertainty principle for approximate joint measurements and derive error-tradeoff relations,” he adds, “one first needs to agree on a framework and on definitions for the errors in the approximation. Ozawa developed such a framework for that, on which I based my analysis.”A key aspect in Branciard’s research is that quantum theory describes the states of a quantum system, their evolution and measurements in geometric terms – that is, physical states are vectors in a high-dimensional, complex Hilbert space, and measurements are represented by projections onto certain orthogonal bases of this high-dimensional space. “I made the most of this geometric picture to derive my new relations,” Branciard explains. “Namely, I represented ideal and approximate measurements by vectors in a similar (but real) space, and translated the errors in the approximations into distances between the vectors. The incompatibility of the two observables to be approximated gave constraints on the possible configuration of those vectors in terms of the angles between the vectors.” By then looking for general constraints on real vectors in a large-dimensional space, and on how close they can be from one another when some of their angles are fixed, Branciard was able to derive his relation between the errors in the approximate joint measurement.Branciard again notes that he used the framework developed mainly by Ozawa, who proposed to quantify the errors in the approximations by the statistical deviations between the approximations and their ideal measurements. In this framework, any measurement can be used to approximate any other measurement, in that the statistical deviation defines the error. However, the advantage of Branciard’s new relation over previously derived ones is that it is, as he described it above, tight. “It does not only tell that certain values are forbidden,” he points out, “but also shows that the bounds they impose can be reached. In fact,” he illustrates, “I could show how to saturate my new relation for any pair of observables A and B and for any quantum state, and reach all optimal error values eA and eB, whether one wants a small eA at the price of having to increase eB, or vice versa.” Moreover, he continues, the fact that it is tight is relevant experimentally, if one aims at testing these kinds of relations. “Showing that a given relation is satisfied is trivial if the relation is universally valid, since any measurement should satisfy it. What is less trivial is to show experimentally that one can indeed reach the bound of a tight relation. Experimental techniques now allow one to perform measurements down to the limits imposed by quantum theory, which makes the study of error-tradeoff relations quite timely. Also,” he adds, “the tightness of error-tradeoff relations may be crucial if one considers applications such as the security of quantum communications: If one uses such relations to study how quantum theory restricts the possible actions of an eavesdropper, it will not be enough to say what cannot be done using simply a valid relation, but also what can be done when quantified by a tight relation.”In Branciard’s framework, the error-disturbance scenario initially considered by Heisenberg can be seen as a particular case of the joint measurement scenario, in that an approximate measurement of the first observable and a subsequent measurement of the then-disturbed incompatible second observable, taken together, constitute an approximate measurement of both observables. More specifically, the second measurement is only approximated because it is performed on the system after it has been disturbed by the first measurement. “Hence, in my framework,” Branciard summarizes, “any constraint on approximation errors in joint measurements also applies to the error-disturbance scenario, in which the error on the second observable is interpreted as its disturbance and error-tradeoff relations simply imply error-disturbance relations. In fact,” he adds, “while the error-disturbance case is a particular case of the more general joint measurement scenario, it’s actually more constrained. This is because in that scenario the approximation of the second observable is done via the actual measurement of precisely that observable after the system has been disturbed by the approximate measurement of the first observable.” This restricts the possible strategies for approximating a joint measurement, and as a consequence stronger constraints can generally be derived for errors versus disturbances rather than for error tradeoffs.Branciard gives a specific example. “Suppose the second observable can produce two possible measurement results – for example, +1 or -1 – that could correspond to measuring spin or polarization in a given direction. In the error-disturbance scenario, the approximation of the 2nd observable – that is, the actual measurement of that observable on the disturbed system – is restricted to produce either the result +1 or the result -1. However, in a more general scenario of approximate joint measurements, it may give lower errors in my framework to approximate the measurement by outputting other measurement results, say 1/2 or -3. For these reasons, one can in general actually derive error-disturbance relations that are stronger than error-tradeoff relations, as shown in my paper.”The uncertainty principle is one of the main tenets of quantum theory, and is a crucial feature for applications in quantum information science, such as quantum computing, quantum communications, quantum cryptography, and quantum key distribution. “Standard uncertainty relations in terms of statistical indeterminacy for exclusive measurements are already used to prove the security of quantum key distribution,” Branciard points out. “In a similar spirit, it may also be possible to use the joint measurement version of the uncertainty principle to analyze the possibility for quantum information applications. This would, however, probably require the expression of error-tradeoff relations in terms of information, by quantifying the limited information gained on each observable, rather than talking about errors.”Looking ahead, Branciard describes possible directions for future research. “As mentioned, in order to make the most of the joint measurement version of the uncertainty principle and be able to use it to prove, for instance, the security of quantum information applications, it would be useful to express it in terms of information-theoretic – that is, entropic – quantities. Little has been studied in this direction, which would require developing a general framework to correctly quantify the partial information gained in approximate joint measurements, and then derive entropic uncertainty relations adapted to the scenarios under consideration.”Beyond its possible applications for quantum information science, Branciard adds, the study of the uncertainty principle brings new insights on the foundations of quantum theory – and for Branciard, some puzzling questions in quantum foundations include why does quantum theory impose such limits on measurements, and why does it contain so many counterintuitive features, such as quantum entanglement and non locality?”A link has recently been established between standard uncertainty relations and the nonlocality of any theory. Studying this joint measurement aspect of the uncertainty principle,” Branciard concludes, “may bring new insights and give a more complete picture of quantum theory by offering to address these metaphysical questions – which have been challenging physicists and philosophers since the invention of quantum theory – from a new perspective.” Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Branciard points out that the fact that the joint measurement of incompatible observables is impossible was first realized by Heisenberg in 1927, when, in his seminal paper, he explained that the measurement of one observable necessarily disturbs the other, and suggested an error-disturbance relation to quantify that. “General uncertainty relations were soon to be derived rigorously,” Branciard continues.More specifically, the uncertainty relation known as the uncertainty principle or Heisenberg principle is a mathematical inequality asserting that there is a fundamental limit to the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties of a particle known as complementary variables, such as a particle’s position and momentum, can be known simultaneously. In the case of position and momentum, the more precisely the position of a particle is determined, the less precisely its momentum can be known, and vice versa.”However,” Branciard notes, these “standard” uncertainty relations quantify a different aspect of Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle: Instead of referring to the joint measurement of two observables on the same physical system – or to the measurement of one observable that perturbs the subsequent measurement of the other observable on the same system, as initially considered by Heisenberg – standard uncertainty relations bound the statistical indeterminacy of the measurement outcomes when either one or the other observable is measured on independent, identically prepared systems.” Error-tradeoff and error-disturbance relations. Copyright © PNAS, doi:10.1073/pnas.1219331110 This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Are you certain, Mr. Heisenberg? New measurements deepen understanding of quantum uncertainty Citation: Uncertainty revisited: Novel tradeoffs in quantum measurement (2013, May 28) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-05-uncertainty-revisited-tradeoffs-quantum.html © 2013 Phys.org. All rights reserved. Constraints imposed by error-tradeoff and error-disturbance relations. Copyright © PNAS, doi:10.1073/pnas.1219331110 , Physical Review A Explore further Dr. Branciard describes the research and challenges he encountered. “Quantum theory tells us that certain measurements are incompatible and cannot be performed jointly,” Branciard tells Phys.org. For example, he illustrates, it is impossible to simultaneously measure the position and speed of a quantum particle, the spin of a particle in different directions, or the polarization of a photon in different directions.”Although such joint measurements are forbidden,” Branciard continues, “one can still try to approximate them. For instance, one can approximate the joint measurement of the spin of a particle in two different directions by actually measuring the spin in a direction in between. At the price of accepting some errors; this yields partial information on the spin in both directions – and the larger the precision is on one direction, the larger the error on the other must be.” While it’s challenging to picture what it means to measure a property “in between position and speed,” he adds, it’s possible to measure something that will give partial information on both the position and speed – but again, the more precise the position is measured, the less precise the speed, and vice versa.There is therefore a tradeoff between precision achievable for each incompatible observable, or equivalently on the errors made in their approximations. What exactly is this tradeoff? How well can one approximate the joint measurement? What fundamental limits does quantum theory precisely impose? This tradeoff – between the error on one observable versus the error on the other – can be characterized by so-called error-tradeoff relations, which show that certain values of errors for each observable are forbidden.”Certain error-tradeoff relations were known already, and set bounds on the values allowed,” Branciard explains. “However, it turns out that in general those bounds could not be reached, since quantum theory actually restricts the possible error values more than what the previous relations were imposing.” In his paper, Branciard derives new error-tradeoff relations which are tight, in the sense that the bounds they impose can be reached when one chooses a “good enough” approximation strategy. He notes that they thus characterize the optimal tradeoff one can have between the errors on the two observables. (Phys.org) —There is, so to speak, uncertainty about uncertainty – that is, over the interpretation of how Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle describes the extent of disturbance to one observable when measuring another. More specifically, the confusion is between the fact that, as Heisenberg first intuited, the measurement of one observable on a quantum state necessarily disturbs another incompatible observable, and the fact that on the other hand the indeterminacy of the outcomes when either one or the other observable is measured is bounded. Recently, Dr. Cyril Branciard at The University of Queensland precisely quantified the former by showing how it is possible to approximate the joint measurement of two observables, albeit with the introduction of errors with respect to the ideal measurement of each. Moreover, the scientist characterized the disturbance of an observable induced by the approximate measurement of another one, and derived a stronger error-disturbance relation for this scenario.
Scientists have been trying to forecast winter weather in Europe for hundreds of years, but it’s been a daunting task. The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)—a climatic phenomenon in the North Atlantic Ocean with no defined periodicity, has made it a major challenge. In recent years, however, some progress has been made. The amount of Eurasian snow cover in October, for example, has been shown to offer some suggestion of how much cold and snow the continent is likely to get as the winter progresses. Wanting more, the research pair wondered if the amount of sea ice present in the Arctic in the fall might offer clues to winter weather patterns.To find out, they pulled weather data for Europe for the winters over the year’s 1979/1980 through 2012/2013 and compared what they found with sea ice concentrations in the Arctic for the same period. In so doing they found what they describe as a new tool for providing skillful predictions of European winter weather. They note that combining Arctic ice concentrations (particularly in the Barents-Kara Sea) as measured in September, with Eurasian snow cover, can provide a reasonably high degree of predictability.The NAO was first discovered by Sir Gilbert Walker in the 1920’s—he observed fluctuations in atmospheric pressure between Iceland and the Azores which appeared to control the westerly direction of winds and storms in the North Atlantic and thus weather patterns in Europe. Predicting changes in the NAO has proved next to impossible, however. Thus, researchers have looked to other climate phenomena to help improve long-range weather forecasting for Europe. In their paper, García-Serranoand and Frankignoul suggest that it’s important that any future weather forecasts for seasonal winter predictions for Europe include measurements of ice in the Arctic in September. (Phys.org) —A pair of researchers with L’Ocean IPSL Université Pierre et Marie Curie in Paris has published a paper in the journal Nature Geoscience describing research they’ve been conducting regarding the amount of Arctic sea ice in September and how it can be used to help predict how severe the following winter will be in Europe. Using maximum covariance analysis on data from 1979/1980–2012/2013, researchers Claude Frankignoul and Javier García-Serrano found that a correlation skill of .59 could be achieved in forecasting the harshness of the following European winter. Would seasonal forecasting enable us to cope with our changing weather? Journal information: Nature Geoscience © 2014 Phys.org Mosaic of images of the Arctic by MODIS. Credit: NASA Citation: Study suggests autumn Arctic sea ice can be used to predict European winter weather (2014, March 24) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-03-autumn-arctic-sea-ice-european.html Explore further More information: High predictability of the winter Euro–Atlantic climate from cryospheric variability, Nature Geoscience (2014) DOI: 10.1038/ngeo2118AbstractSeasonal prediction skill for surface winter climate in the Euro–Atlantic sector has been limited so far. In particular, the predictability of the winter North Atlantic Oscillation, the mode that largely dominates regional atmospheric and climate variability, remains a hurdle for present dynamical prediction systems. Statistical forecasts have also been largely elusive, but October Eurasian snow cover has been shown to be a robust source of regional predictability. Here we use maximum covariance analysis to show that Arctic sea-ice variability represents another good predictor of the winter Euro–Atlantic climate at lead times of as much as three months. Cross-validated hindcasts of the winter North Atlantic Oscillation index using September sea-ice anomalies yield a correlation skill of 0.59 for the period 1979/1980–2012/2013, suggesting that 35% of its variance could be predicted three months in advance. This skill can be further enhanced, at the expense of a shorter lead time, by using October Eurasian snow cover as an additional predictor. Skilful predictions of winter European surface air temperature and precipitation are also obtained with September sea ice as the only predictor. We conclude that it is important to incorporate Arctic sea-ice variability in seasonal prediction systems. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
The quantum stopwatch transfers time information from a quantum clock, consisting of several identical particles, to a quantum memory. Credit: Yang et al. ©2018 The Royal Society The physicists, Yuxiang Yang, Giulio Chiribella, and Masahito Hayashi, from the universities of Hong Kong, Oxford, and Nagoya, have published a paper on the quantum stopwatch technique in a recent issue of the Proceedings of the Royal Society A.As the physicists explain in their paper, when it comes to making highly accurate time measurements, some clocks are better than others for technological reasons. But all clocks—no matter how well-constructed—are subject to a fundamental quantum limit that has its roots in Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. Due to this quantum limit, larger clocks have smaller measurement errors, but no clock can be so large that it is completely error-free. As a result of this limit, when one or more clocks make multiple time measurements—for example, when measuring the total duration of a sequence of events—then the errors accumulate. This leads to an inaccuracy that grows linearly with the number of measurements.The quantum stopwatch method addresses this problem by transferring the states of clocks (typically consisting of many identical atoms or ions) to the memory of a quantum computer. The computer then processes all of the data and determines the length of the time interval using only a single measurement. As a result, the only error is the error due to the measurement of one clock.”The quantum stopwatch introduces a new, more accurate way of processing time information,” Chiribella told Phys.org. “Before, most people thought that the only application of quantum clocks was to provide precise, classical information about time. The clock was quantum, but the output was purely classical information, which could be stored into the memory of a classical computer. With the stopwatch, we understood that maintaining time information in a quantum form can reduce errors by a very large amount. The moral is: when we want to combine different pieces of time information, that information had better be quantum.”One of the challenges with this idea is that storing large amounts of information in a quantum memory is very difficult, which leads to the question of how much memory is needed to store time. In their paper, the physicists derive a “quantum memory bound” that determines the minimum number of qubits required by the memory to store clock states with a certain accuracy. Overall, the physicists hope that, by showing that quantum computers could be used to increase the accuracy of time measurements, the quantum stopwatch will provide additional motivation for the development of quantum computers. They expect that one of the biggest challenges for experimentally realizing the quantum stopwatch method will be encoding and decoding the states with a high accuracy. After further improvements, the quantum stopwatch method could have a variety of new applications.”One exciting area of application is the development of networks of quantum clocks,” Chiribella said. “Imagine that a number of quantum clocks are sitting at different positions in space, and can communicate to one another through quantum communication links. By transferring information from one clock to another, we can greatly enhance the accuracy of time measurements in the network. For example, we can measure the average ticking frequency of the clocks with a precision that would not be possible if the clocks were not connected with one another. In the long term, these applications could lead to a quantum-enhanced GPS technology, which could locate objects with a precision beyond the precision of our current GPS devices.” © 2018 Phys.org Citation: Quantum stopwatch stores time in a quantum memory (2018, June 5) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-06-quantum-stopwatch-memory.html Quantum noise reduction method for enhanced precision in atomic clocks More information: Yuxiang Yang, Giulio Chiribella, and Masahito Hayashi. “Quantum stopwatch: how to store time in a quantum memory.” Proceedings of the Royal Society A. DOI: 10.1098/rspa.2017.0773 Journal information: Proceedings of the Royal Society A Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Physicists have developed a “quantum stopwatch”—a method that stores time (in the form of states of quantum clocks) in a quantum memory. In doing so, the method avoids the accumulation of errors that usually occurs when measuring the duration of a sequence of events. In this way, the quantum stopwatch increases the accuracy of measuring time at the quantum level, which is essential for applications such as GPS, astronomy research, and distributed computing.
Explore further A team of researchers with members from several African countries, the U.S., Indonesia, the U.K and Australia has found that many areas in Africa meant to protect lions are failing due to lack of funds. In their paper published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the group describes their study of protected areas in Africa and why they believe it would take an infusion of over $1 billion annually to save them. Africa is a continent rife with countries in turmoil—in addition to civil wars, rampant poverty and the threat of global warming, many of the animals that are unique to Africa are dwindling in population, one of which is the lion. Many African countries have responded to threats to wildlife by designating certain areas as protected, where it is illegal to hunt, trap or harm wildlife. Unfortunately, in order for secure such areas, managers require funding to offer protective services. Without such funds, poachers and trophy hunters take a heavy toll. In this new effort, the researchers have studied 282 such protected areas and have found most of them to be severely lacking in funds—as a result, lion populations are dwindling. They note that over just the past 20 years, the wild lion population in Africa has dropped by 43 percent—there are now just 20,000 living in the wild.To learn more about what is going on with protected areas or parks in Africa, the researchers looked at the amount of funding each park received, how well it was doing in protecting the animals, and how much money would be needed to increase populations by 50 percent. After adding them all together, the researchers found that the parks together would need $1.2 to $2.4 billion to operate in a sustainable way. They note that currently, the same parks together receive just $381 million annually.The researchers suggest that tourism dollars might offer a solution, noting the success South Africa and Kenya have found when investing heavily in wildlife parks. Another possibility is foreign investment. Credit: CC0 Public Domain More information: Peter A. Lindsey et al. More than $1 billion needed annually to secure Africa’s protected areas with lions, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2018). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1805048115 Citation: Study suggests over $1 billion needed annually to save Africa’s lion parks (2018, October 23) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-10-billion-annually-africa-lion.html © 2018 Phys.org Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Prides, protection and parks: Africa’s protected areas can support four times as many lions This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Malini Awasthi is one of the
Exploring the nature of science, religion, evidence and love, ‘Confessions of a Dying Mind’ is a non-fiction novel written by Haulianlal Guite, an IAS Officer from the state of Manipur, currently serving in Rajasthan. The book is the world’s first philosophical novel on God which makes use of the latest findings of modern science and the most solid theories in philosophy. The book was unveiled by State Minister for Home Affairs, Kiren Rijiju in presence of Dr David Syiemlieh, Chairperson, UPSC at Civil Services Officers’ Institute, New Delhi. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfOn his first novel, Haulianlal Guite said, “The book explores the most important question; whether modern science has done away with God? Hundreds of books have been written on God. But these are mostly scholarly treatises not accessible to the lay reader as they tend to be dense, dry and full of jargon. Also, my book is written as a nonfiction novel since the plotline is a demonstration of my central argument: that whether we believe or disbelieve, there is no evidence for or against. This use of the novel format makes it the world’s first philosophical novel ever written for God.” Speaking on the occasion of book launch, Kiren Rijiju, said,” I haven’t read the book yet but I am sure that the book is a masterpiece which takes its readers into the world between science and philosophy. Haulianlal Guite’s comprehensive knowledge of contemporary philosophy is truly astonishing. I wish him all the best for all his future endeavours.” Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveThe title, ‘Confessions Of A Dying Mind’ alludes to the story of the main protagonist, Albert Dyers – an atheist who undergoes a life-transforming near-death experience. The book is presented as a series of novelised discussions between Dyers who is in a coma and experiencing the effects of a near-death experience; and a mysterious Mr Walker, either a figment of his imagination, or a divine figure sent by some force unrevealed, or a distillation of his own inner contemplations, to teach him the meaning of life, religion and all the rest. It is the first non-fiction novel written by a North-East Indian and also the first philosophical novel by an Indian Civil Servant since John Stuart Mill published ‘On Liberty’ in 1858.
Kolkata: The Kolkata Municipal Corporation will write to the union Animal Husbandry department seeking guidelines on vaccination or sterilisation of cats that are found loitering in the city.Deputy Mayor Atin Ghosh while leading a drive on sterilisation and vaccination of stray dogs on NRS campus on Friday afternoon found a substantial number of cats roaming inside the premises. “We are in the dark about what to do with the felines. If they are pets, there should be some laws in place to ensure they remain within households and if they are not, then what should be our stand? Should we go for birth control of the cats like the dogs? The Centre should have a guideline,” Ghosh said. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedNRS is also writing a letter to the Centre on the same subject because cat population is on the rise at the hospital premises. It may be mentioned that sights of cats are quite common in state-run hospitals and there have been instances of patients getting bitten by the campus cats. The Health department of the civic body on Friday picked up a number of dogs from NRS for sterilisation and vaccination. “We will take the animals to our dog pound at Dhapa and will sterilize them. The animals that have already undergone the process related to birth control will be registered anti-rabies vaccine,” Also Read – Bose & Gandhi: More similar than apart, says Sugata BoseGhosh said. Ghosh has already written to all state government hospitals as well as other government offices across the city expressing his desire to take up sterilisation and vaccination drive of the street dogs. “We will vaccinate and sterilize, whichever is necessary, and will drop them at the same place as this is the law under the Animal Birth Control programme,” a senior official of the civic body said.